This report was written as part of the Building momentum for the long-term CCS deployment in the CEE region project (CCS4CEE), which aims to renew the discussion on the long-term deployment of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies in Central Eastern Europe (CEE), leading to new policy developments and joint projects in this area.
Our objective with this report is to inform the readers and thus increase the level of understanding of the current state of CCS technologies and the EU policy framework associated with CCS (as of October 2021). Chapter one provides a summary of CCS technologies, broken down by activity (capture, transport, storage and utilisation). It explains their key features, such as the technological readiness level, costs, applications and limitations. This is followed by chapter two, which focuses on the EU policy framework. It explains how CCS found its place in EU climate policy and how its role in it has evolved. Building on that, we explain what has been put in place to regulate and also to incentivise CCS deployment in the EU. This is complemented by a list of EU funding mechanisms that can support CCS projects. Conclusions drawn from the content of these two chapters form the closing section of the report.
The report also includes Boxes with examples illustrating some of the technology and policy concepts, as well as some of the CCS projects that are often mentioned in discussions around CCS.